Part of the book: Global Warming Impacts
Secondary vectors of malaria include those anopheline species that are known to play minor part in malaria transmission. Primary vectors of malaria in Africa are Anopheles gambiae s.s, Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles funestus, Anopheles moucheti and Anopheles nili, while Anopheles rivolorum, Anopheles pharoensis, Anopheles ziemanni, among others are secondary vectors. They are recognized for their importance in malaria transmission, as they may help to augment or extend the malaria transmission period and potentially sustain malaria transmission after the main indoor resting and indoor biting vectors have been reduced by vector control measures such as indoor residual spraying or Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Thus, the terminology “secondary” versus “primary” vector is fluid and forged by ecological conditions and malaria control strategies. Most secondary vectors are outdoor resting and outdoor biting are thus, not taken care of in the current control methods. High use of insecticides for vector control in Africa, climate change, unprecedented land use changes in Africa are some of the factors that could influence the conversion of secondary vectors to become main vectors in Africa. This chapter examines the role of secondary vectors in malaria transmission and the possibility of them becoming main vectors in future.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Malaria
A wide deployment of malaria control tools have significantly reduced malaria morbidity and mortality across Africa. However, in the last five to seven years, there has been a resurgence of malaria in several African countries, raising the questions of whether and why current control mechanisms are failing. Since the first Plasmodium falciparum reference genome was published in 2002, few thousands more representing a broad range of geographical isolates have been sequenced. These advances in parasite genomics have improved our understanding of mutational changes, molecular structure, and genetic mechanisms associated with diagnostic testing, antimalarial resistance, and preventive measures such as vaccine development. In this chapter, we summarize the current progress on: (1) genomic characteristics of P. falciparum; (2) novel biomarkers and revolutionary techniques for diagnosing malaria infections; and (3) current vaccine targets and challenges for developing efficacious and long-lasting malaria vaccines.
Part of the book: Current Topics and Emerging Issues in Malaria Elimination