Brucella species cause brucellosis in humans and animals, a zoonosis that can manifest not only as acute or chronic diseases but also as silent infections persisting throughout life with recurrences potentially occurring after several decades. In vitro and in vivo methods have been developed to evaluate the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of antibiotics against Brucella sp. Especially eukaryotic cells and animal models have been used to evaluate the ability of antibiotics, alone or in combination, to eradicate these bacteria from their intracellular reservoir. Although treatment recommendations have been established for common clinical forms of brucellosis, optimized therapeutic alternatives are still needed for severe forms of the disease, and for infections occurring in young children and pregnant women. Moreover, acquired resistance to first-line treatments of brucellosis is a current concern. This chapter will summarize current knowledge on in vitro and in vivo interactions between Brucella species and antibiotics and new therapeutic strategies that have been evaluated.
Part of the book: Updates on Brucellosis