Part of the book: Clinical Management of Complicated Urinary Tract Infection
Cardiovascular disease is a major health issue worldwide. Individuals who have cardiovascular disease, are often at risk or already have other diseases, which together can lead to metabolic syndromes and possibly increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Gut microbial balance is increasingly being recognized as a possible risk factor in cardiovascular illnesses. Studies published so far have shown a possible link to hypertension, hyperlipidemia and associated cardiac illnesses. Balance of the colonic flora seems to improve these co-morbid conditions. Probiotics have been studied in several studies to determine if their use provides a beneficial non-pharmacological treatment option for diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, cardiomyopathy and atherosclerosis. Placebo, double blinded controlled studies are s needed to determine if these perceived beneficial effects exists and to what extent probiotics play in the overall outcome in cardiovascular diseases.
Part of the book: Probiotics