Proteinuria is one of the hallmarks of preeclampsia (PE) that differentiates other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Protein misfolding and aggregation is an emerging pathological condition underlying many chronic metabolic diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies indicate protein aggregation as an emerging biomarker of preeclampsia, wherein several proteins are aggregated and dysregulated in the body fluids of preeclamptic women, provoking the multi-systemic clinical manifestations of the disease. At the cellular level, these misfolded and aggregated proteins are potentially toxic interfering with the normal physiological process, eliciting the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway activators in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that subsequently augments the ER quality control systems to remove these aberrant proteins. ER resident chaperones, folding enzymes and other proteins serve as part of the ER quality control machinery in restoring nascent protein folding. These ER chaperones are crucial for ER function aiding in native protein folding, maintaining calcium homeostasis, as sensors of ER stress and also as immune modulators. Consequently, ER chaperones seems to be involved in many cellular processes, yet the association is expanding to be explored. Understanding the role and mechanism of ER chaperones in regulating protein misfolding and aggregation would provide new avenues for therapeutic intervention as well as for the development of new diagnostic approaches.
Part of the book: Preeclampsia