Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is a mosquito borne flavivirus infection. Transmission of JEV starts with the infected mosquito bite where human dermis layer act as the primary site of infection. Once JEV makes its entry into blood, it infects monocytes wherein the viral replication peaks up without any cell death and results in production of TNF-α. One of the most characteristics pathogenesis of JEV is the breaching of blood brain barrier (BBB). JEV propagation occurs in neurons that results in neuronal cell death as well as dissemination of virus into astrocytes and microglia leading to overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines. JEV infection results in host cells mediated secretion of various types of cytokines including type-1 IFN along with TNF-α and IFN-γ. Molecule like nitrous oxide (NO) exhibits antiviral activities against JEV infection and helps in inhibiting the viral replication by blocking protein synthesis and viral RNA and also in virus infected cells clearance. In addition, the antibody can also acts an opsonizing agent in order to facilitate the phagocytosis of viral particles, which is mediated by Fc or C3 receptor. This chapter focuses on the crucial mechanism of JEV induced pathogenesis including neuropathogenesis viral clearance mechanisms and immune escape strategies.
Part of the book: Innate Immunity in Health and Disease