Salinity is one of the most severe environmental problems worldwide and affects plant growth, reproduction, and crop yields by inducing physiological and biochemical changes due to osmotic and ionic shifts in plant cells. One of the principal modifications caused by osmotic stress is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause membrane damage and alter proteins, DNA structures, and photosynthetic processes. In response, plants increase their arsenal of antioxidant compounds, such as ROS scavenging enzymes and nonenzymatic elements like ascorbate, glutathione, flavonoids, tocopherols, and carotenoids, and their rates of osmolyte synthesis to conserve ion homeostasis and manage salt stress. This chapter describes the principal biochemical mechanisms that are employed by plants to survive under salt-stress conditions, including the most recent research regarding plant tolerance, and suggests strategies to produce valuable crops that are able to deal with soil salinity.
Part of the book: Plant Stress Physiology