This chapter presents the most promising features and applications of biochar along with their optimal pyrolysis conditions. Biochars have a range of physicochemical properties depending on the feedstock and pyrolysis conditions, which greatly affect their wide applications. The biochar production and its characteristics, including the effect of feedstocks and different process-parameters on the properties and yield of biochar are thoroughly examined. The higher pyrolysis-temperature can give higher carbon-contents, pH, and surface-areas of biochars while volatiles and molar-ratios of O/C, H/C and N/C decrease with pyrolysis-temperature. Higher carbon-content and neutral-pH biochars have high affinity for organic pollutants due to high surface areas, making them attractive for adsorption and catalysis purposes. Biochars with higher-pH are preferred for soil application to correct soil-acidity. Thus, the pyrolysis temperature should be selected as per the final application of the biochar. Characterization of biochars of different feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions is reviewed and presented along with their proximate and ultimate analysis.
Part of the book: Recent Perspectives in Pyrolysis Research