Deregulation of a broad range of protein kinases has been linked to the development and growth of cancer cells. Protein kinases are intracellular enzymes that regulate cell growth and proliferation as well as the triggering and regulation of immune responses. Protein kinases are important therapeutic targets in cancer because of their critical role in signalling mechanisms that drive malignant cell characteristics. Intensive efforts in drug research have been made in this area over the last two decades. The current study delves into the catalytic domain of a protein kinase as well as information transfer from the cell’s membrane to internal targets. It also discusses the function of protein kinases in signal transduction and their cellular signalling pathways. Furthermore, it specifically outlines a systematic method to hybrid therapies to solve the issue of protein kinase resistance. The therapeutic use of nitric oxide, as well as other targets such as Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K), Protein Kinase B (Akt), serine/threonine protein kinase (mTOR), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK), vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR), and anaplastic lymphoma (ALK) etc., According to the review article, selective therapy has shown high effectiveness in the treatment of advanced cancer, with protein kinase inhibitors being a main focus of the therapy. As a result, the latest review summarized that, the current state of science with the aim of identifying a novel protein kinase inhibitor that may be utilized in the treatment of advanced cancers.
Part of the book: Protein Kinases
Breast cancer is a major health concern as it is the second leading cause of death from cancer. There are several well-known risk factors that contribute to breast cancer. Despite the various treatment options available, complete cure is still difficult due to heterogenicity of BC subtypes. As a result, identifying BC subtypes is critical for determining the optimal treatment approach. Over the last several years, new drugs targeting particular therapeutic targets have resulted in significant advances in the treatment of breast cancer. Nonetheless, resistance to treatment is the “major” issue, and a significant increase in survival rates has been the main focus for researchers. The purpose of this review article is to provide a broad overview of the molecular basis of drug resistance in breast cancer, as well as a detailed assessment of current treatment options, potential new treatment methods for drug-resistant breast cancer and repurposed drugs used for treatment. The possibility of non-cancer drugs being studied for breast cancer in the future, as well as the obstacles and bottlenecks of drug repurposing, is also highlighted. Finally, we go through present problems and future prospects in drug-resistant breast cancer therapy.
Part of the book: Drug Repurposing