Raman spectroscopy is a widely used technique for organic and inorganic chemical material identification. Throughout the last century, major improvements in lasers, spectrometers, detectors, and holographic optical components have uplifted Raman spectroscopy as an effective device for a variety of different applications including fundamental chemical and material research, medical diagnostics, bio-science, in-situ process monitoring and planetary investigations. Undoubtedly, mathematical data analysis has been playing a vital role to speed up the migration of Raman spectroscopy to explore different applications. It supports researchers to customize spectral interpretation and overcome the limitations of the physical components in the Raman instrument. However, large, and complex datasets, interferences from instrumentation noise and sample properties which mask the true features of samples still make Raman spectroscopy as a challenging tool. Deep learning is a powerful machine learning strategy to build exploratory and predictive models from large raw datasets and has gained more attention in chemical research over recent years. This chapter demonstrates the application of deep learning techniques for Raman signal-extraction, feature-learning and modelling complex relationships as a support to researchers to overcome the challenges in Raman based chemical analysis.