Inadequate absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at the arachnoid granulation level during circulation results in an increase in CSF in the ventricle and certain neuropsychiatric clinical findings. This syndrome, which often presents with ventricular dilatation, progressive cognitive decline, walking difficulties, and urinary incontinence symptoms in elderly individuals, is called Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH). It is projected that as people’s quality of life improves and their life expectancy rises, more old people would develop this condition. Although a clear clinical triad has been defined, the identification of patients with NPH and the application of effective treatment modalities still pose a number of challenges for neurosurgeons today. However, despite all these difficulties, if diagnosed and treated early, the unusual appearance of these symptoms affecting elderly individuals can be prevented and significant improvements in quality of life can be achieved.
Part of the book: Cerebrospinal Fluid
Meningiomas are among the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumors worldwide. These extra-axial lesions, which usually originate from neoplastic arachnoidal (meningothelial) cells, often appear in mid-late adulthood and are more common in women. Due to their heterogeneous morphology, the World Health Organization (WHO) divided meningiomas into three main groups, and these three main groups are divided into nine subgroups with histopathological differences according to their biological behavior. Clinical signs and symptoms, as in other central nervous system tumors, vary considerably depending on the compression or invasion of the neurovascular structures in the compartment where the meningioma is located. Meningiomas that are presented as benign lesions often have the potential to grow slowly, but could be associated with morbidity, such as poor quality of life, depending on the histopathological grade and localization of the lesion. Although fractionated radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an alternative treatment option for meningiomas that cannot be completely removed (surgically inaccessible, or recurrent (atypical or anaplastic)) the primary treatment for these lesions is surgery. In this context, we have detailed meningiomas in this section.
Part of the book: Central Nervous System Tumors