With an estimated global value of US$15.6 billion, farmed salmonids represent a precious food resource, which is also the fastest increasing food producing industry with annual growth of 7% in production. A total average of 3,594,000 metric tonnes was produced in 2020, behind Chinese and Indian carps, tilapias and catfishes. Lead producers of farmed salmonids are Norway, Chile, Faroe, Canada and Scotland, stimulated by increasing global demand and market. However, over the last 2 years, production has been declining, occasioned by effects of diseases as well as rising feed costs. Over the last year, production has declined sharply due to effects of covid-19. This chapter reviews the species in culture, systems of culture, environmental footprints of salmon culture, and market trends in salmon culture. Burden of diseases, especially Infectious pancreatic Necrosis, Infectious salmon anemia and furunculosis, as well as high cost of feed formulation, key challenges curtailing growth of the salmon production industry, are discussed. A review is made of the international salmon genome sequencing effort, selective breeding for disease resistance, and the use of genomics to mitigate challenges of diseases that stifle higher production of salmonids globally.
Part of the book: Salmon Aquaculture
Ranking fifth in global aquaculture production of farmed fin fishes, with a total tonnage of 5, 518 878 metric tons worth US$ 10 569 972 Billion, Catfishes are exceptionally important as a seafood product. They are an especially important food resource in developing countries, more so since their farmed production does not require sophisticated technology. The diversity and natural distribution of catfishes are documented. Farmed production of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the Mekong delta and Ictalurus punctatus in China is reviewed as global success story in the culture of catfishes. Important lessons from these ventures are drawn for the culture of clariid catfishes, the dominant group farmed in Africa. Amongst this family, the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) is the most widely cultured species, due to its hardy nature. However, its culture is constrained by insufficient seed supply, due to poor survival of fingerlings. These challenges are brought to the fore, so that future research efforts explore strategies of countenance, in order to increase food fish production, incomes, and livelihoods in Africa.
Part of the book: Catfish