Pharmacogenomics and pharmacotranscriptomics contribute to more efficient and safer treatment of many diseases, especially malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common hematological malignancy during childhood. Glucocorticoids, prednisone and dexamethasone, represent the basis of chemotherapy in pediatric ALL. Therapy causes side effects in 75% of patients and 1–3% of pediatric ALL patients die because of therapy side effects rather than the disease itself. Due to this fact, pharmacogenomics and pharmacotranscriptomics have gained key positions in this field. There is a growing knowledge of pharmacogenomics and pharmacotranscriptomics markers relevant for the success of the glucocorticoid treatment of children with ALL. New technologies, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) have created a possibility for designing panels of pharmacogenomics and pharmacotranscriptomics markers related to the response to glucocorticoid drugs. Optimization of these panels through population pharmacogenomic studies leads to new knowledge that could open the doors widely to pre-emptive pharmacogenomic testing.
Part of the book: Corticosteroids