AKI is a syndrome consisting of several clinical conditions, due to sudden kidney dysfunction. Sepsis and septic shock are the causes of AKI and are known as Sepsis-Associated AKI (SA-AKI) and accounted for more than 50% of cases of AKI in the ICU, with poor prognosis. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is characterized by a sudden decline in kidney function for several hours/day, which results in the accumulation of creatinine, urea and other waste products. The most recent definition was formulated in the Kidney Disease consensus: Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO), published in 2012, where the AKI was established if the patient’s current clinical manifestation met several criteria: an increase in serum creatinine levels ≥0.3 mg/dL (26.5 μmol/L) within 48 hours, an increase in serum creatinine for at least 1.5 times the baseline value within the previous 7 days; or urine volume ≤ 0.5 ml/kg body weight for 6 hours. The AKI pathophysiology includes ischemic vasodilation, endothelial leakage, necrosis in nephrons and microtrombus in capillaries. The management of sepsis associated with AKI consisted of fluid therapy, vasopressors, antibiotics and nephrotoxic substances, Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) and diuretics. In the analysis of the BEST Kidney trial subgroup, the likelihood of hospital death was 50% higher in AKI sepsis compared to non-sepsis AKI. Understanding of sepsis and endotoxins that can cause SA-AKI is not yet fully known. Some evidence suggests that renal microcirculation hypoperfusion, lack of energy for cells, mitochondrial dysfunction, endothelial injury and cycle cell arrest can cause SA-AKI. Rapid identification of SA-AKI events, antibiotics and appropriate fluid therapy are crucial in the management of SA-AKI.
Part of the book: Infections and Sepsis Development