Global warming driven either by human activities that emit greenhouse gases in the atmosphere or by natural shifts in weather patterns results in climate change. Short as well as long climate changes have impacts on the people’s livelihoods worldwide through the intensification of natural desert, increased temperatures and precipitations, lack of access to (clean) water among others. This description is true in Rwanda as climate change affects agricultural sector which is proven to be a cornerstone of sustainable development of the country. However, it is possible to minimize the negative effects of climatic changes by reducing the vulnerabilities to it. This requires sound adaptation measures and mitigation strategies. Using literature review, this chapter shed light on ambitious mechanisms developed by the government of Rwanda to combat and to adapt to the effects of climate change, especially in its agricultural sector.