Nowadays, atmospheric water harvesting (AWH) became very essential to provide fresh potable water. This technique is in practice since 1900 (US661944A) by Edger S. Belden. Atmospheric water is a source of freshwater with 13000 trillion liters availability of water at any time and can be utilized in overcoming water shortage, especially in arid and rural areas. It holds up the water molecules in the form of vapors and accounts for adding 10% of all freshwater present on the earth. Mainly, the two most common methods have been used for the extraction of atmospheric water. First, the ambient air is cooled below the dew point temperature, and second in which the moisture in atmospheric air is adsorbed/absorbed using desiccant materials. Conventional vapor compression, thermoelectric cooling, dew, and fog water harvesting based systems/technologies possess some limits in terms of energy requirements, less efficiency, and high cost. However, the adsorption based AWH technology is relatively cheaper, environment friendly, and can be operated by a low-grade thermal energy source. The limited availability of commercial instruments to harvest atmospheric water using adsorbents indicates a lack of fundamental studies. The fundamental research on water adsorption, adsorption kinetics, regeneration conditions, and water collecting surface designs has not gained as much interest as required in the field of atmospheric water harvesting. In this regard, this book chapter discusses and presents the progress in the field of adsorbent materials and system designs along with the future directions to accelerate the commercialization of this technology.
Part of the book: Technology in Agriculture
The present study aims to investigate the prospects and challenges that need to be encountered for the adaptation of the novel agrovoltaic irrigation system (AVIS) in Pakistan. The agro-production scenario in Pakistan is periodically declining and leading toward the high delta crops, which develop severe pressure on the conventional energy and water resources. Groundwater might be a viable water source, but its pumping requires massive energy. In addition, excessive pumping declines the water table at a higher pace as compared to the recharge rate hence leading the country toward the exploitation of the valuable reservoir. The AVIS could be an energy-efficient and reliable irrigation solution in a manner of harvesting solar energy for driving smart irrigation systems capable to pumps the metered groundwater according to field requirements. Lack of local understanding, skilled/technical personnel, dependence on local technology, and major capital expenditures might impede technological adaption. The government should take necessary measures to replenish the groundwater reservoirs and also execute research projects that strengthen ground knowledge of AVIS.
Part of the book: Irrigation and Drainage