Global climate change is leading to a series of frequent onset of environmental stresses such as prolonged drought periods, dynamic precipitation patterns, heat stress, and cold stress on plants and commercial crops. The increasing severity of such stresses is not only making agriculture and related economic sector vulnerable but also negatively influences plant diversity patterns. The global temperature of planet Earth has risen to 1.1°C since the last 19th century. An increase in surface temperature leads to an increase in soil temperature which ultimately reduces water content in the soil, thereby, reducing crop growth and yield. Moreover, this situation is becoming more intense for agricultural practices in arid and semi-arid regions. To overcome climatically induced stresses, acclimatization of plant species via bioinoculation with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) is becoming an effective approach. The PGPR are capable of colonizing rhizosphere (exophytes) as well as plant organs (endophytes), where they trigger an accumulation of osmolytes for osmoregulation or improving gene expression of heat or cold stress proteins, or by signaling the synthesis of phytohormones, metabolites, proteins, and antioxidants to scavenge reactive oxygen species. Thus, PGPR exhibiting multiple plant growth-promoting traits can be employed via bioinoculants to improve the plant’s tolerance against unfavorable stress conditions.
Part of the book: Technology in Agriculture