Nano-ceramic of NiCrxFe2-xO4 (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) ferrites were synthesized by citrate-gel auto combustion method. The structural parameter such as lattice parameter, X-ray density, bulk density and porosity variations with Cr doping were studied. The average crystallite size is in the range 8.5–10.5 nm. The surface morphology and elemental analysis was studied with SEM (EDAX) spectrum and the structural information analyzed with FTIR spectra. Magnetic properties were discussed with Cr3+ion concentration. Electrical parameters like dc resistivity and drift mobility were reported with function of temperature and dopent concentration from room temperature to well beyond Curie temperature and explained with hopping mechanism between Fe2+↔Fe3+ ions. The activation energies in ferri and para magnetic regions were investigated. Dielectric parameters like dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity were investigated variation with frequency and composition.
Part of the book: Advanced Ceramic Materials
Synthesis of Cobalt-Erbium nano-ferrites with formulation CoErxFe2-xO4 (x = 0, 0.005, 0.010, 0.015, 0.020, 0.025, and 0.030) using technique of citrate-gel auto-combustion was done. Characterization of prepared powders was done by using XRD, EDAX, FESEM, AFM and FTIR Spectroscopy, DC resistivity properties respectively. XRD Rietveld Analysis, SEM, TEM and EDAX analysis were taken up in studying spectral, structural, magnetic and electrical properties. XRD pattern of CEF nano particles confirm single phase cubic spinal structure. The structural variables given by lattice constant (a), lattice volume (v), average crystallite size (D) and X-ray density(dx), Bulk density (d), porosity (p), percentage of pore space (P%), surface area (s), strain (ε), dislocation density (δ), along with ionic radii, bond length and hoping length were calculated. SEM and TEM results reveal homogeneous nature of particles accompanied by clusters having no impurity pickup. TEM analysis gives information about particle size of nanocrystalline ferrite while EDAX analysis confirm elemental composition. Emergence of two arch shaped frequency bands (ν1 and ν2) that represent vibrations at tetrahedral site (A) and octahedral site(B) was indicated by spectra of FTIR. The samples electrical resistivity (DC) was measured between 30°C -600°C with Two probe method. XRD Rietveld analysis confirm crystallite size lying between 20.84 nm–14.40 nm while SEM analysis indicate formation of agglomerates and TEM analysis indicate particle size ranging between 24 nm–16 nm. DC Electrical measurements indicate continuous decrease in resistivity with increasing temperature while increasing doping decreases curie temperature. The Magnetic parameters such as Saturation magnetization (Ms), Remanent magnetization (Mr), Coercivity (Hc) and Squareness ratio (R = Mr/Ms), Magnetic moment (nB) were altered by doping of Er+3 content in the increasing order (x = 0.00 to 0.030). The increasing erbium content decreases magnetization thus converting the sample into soft magnetic material. Observations indicated strong dependence of magnetic properties on Erbium substitution and coercivity varies in accordance with anisotropy constant. Due to the presence of magnetic dipole Erbium substituted cobalt ferrites can be used in electromagnetic applications. The present study investigates the effect of different compositions of Er3+ replaced for Fe on structural properties and electrical resistivity of cobalt ferrites.
Part of the book: Ferrites