Tramadol (TR) is a widely prescribed pain killer because of its relatively safe profile among opioids. Nevertheless, intoxication can occur and overdose can lead to fatal outcomes. Surprisingly, in some fatalities for which death is attributable to TR alone, postmortem blood concentration levels overlap with the therapeutic concentration range. These fatal cases might be explained by pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of TR that are known to be both enantioselective and influenced by genes. Indeed pharmacogenetics (PG) is of great importance in this issue as it has the ability to elucidate the genetic variation contributing to drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and response so that adverse drug reactions, toxicity, and even death can be avoided. The aim of this chapter is to present this issue.
Part of the book: Forensic Analysis