For anterior gradient 2 (AGR2), normal cells express the intracellular form iAGR2 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum while cancer cells express the extracellular form eAGR2 localized on the cell surface and secreted. Antibodies targeting eAGR2+ cancer cells for eradication will spare normal cells. Two AGR2 monoclonal antibodies, P1G4 and P3A5, were shown to recognize specifically eAGR2+ pancreatic tumors implanted in mice. In addition, P1G4 showed enhancement in drug inhibition of tumor growth. Human:mouse chimeric antibodies of IgG1, IgG2, IgG4 were generated for both antibodies. These human IgG were shown to lyse eAGR2+ prostate cancer cells in vitro with human serum. AGR2 has an important function in distal spread of cancer cells, and is highly expressed in prostate, pancreatic, bladder metastases. Therefore, immunotherapy based on AGR2 antibody-mediated ADCC and CDC is highly promising. Cancer specificity of eAGR2 predicts possibly minimal collateral damage to healthy tissues and organs. Moreover, AGR2 therapy, once fully developed and approved, can be used to treat other solid tumors since AGR2 is an adenocarcinoma antigen found in many common malignancies.
Part of the book: Advances in Precision Medicine Oncology