Leiomyomas are the most common gynecologic and uterine neoplasms. Uterine leiomyomas present in approximately 25% of women during reproductive age. Extrauterine leiomyomas (EULs) are rarer and usually arise in the genitourinary tract, however, may arise at nearly any anatomic location and possess a great diagnostic challenge. Moreover, the EULs may also present with unusual growth patterns such as disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis, intravenous leiomyomatosis, benign metastasizing leiomyoma, parasitic leiomyoma, and retroperitoneal mass. However, the cell of origin from smooth muscle cells and histological benign characteristics is similar to their uterine counterpart. The presence of a synchronous uterine leiomyoma or history of previous hysterectomy is a considerable evidence for the diagnosis of these abnormally located and unusual growth pattern displaying EULs. Different imaging modalities like ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful in the diagnosis of EULs, however, sometimes a histopathological examination is required for the confirmation.
Part of the book: Fibroids