Increase in global warming poses a severe threat on agricultural production thereby affecting food security. A drastic reduction in yield at elevated temperature is a resultant of several agro-morphological, physiological and biochemical modifications in plants. Heat tolerance is a complex mechanism under polygenic inheritance. Development of tolerant genotypes suited to heat extremes will be more advantageous to tropical and sub tropical regimes. A clear understanding on heat tolerance mechanism is needed for bringing trait based improvement in a crop species. Heat tolerance is often correlated with undesirable traits which limits the economic yield. In addition, high environmental interactions coupled with poor phenotyping techniques limit the progress of breeding programme. Recent advances in molecular technique led to precise introgression of thermo-tolerant genes into elite genetic background which has been reviewed briefly in this chapter.
Part of the book: Plant Breeding
Aroma in rice is unique and a superior grain quality trait, varieties especially Basmati and Jasmine-type are fetching a high export price in the International markets. Among the identified volatile aroma compounds, 2AP (2 acetyl-1-pyrroline) is believed to be the distinctive biochemical compound contributing the flavor in rice. Genetically, aroma in rice arises by the phenotypic expression of spontaneous recessive mutations of the OsBadh2 gene (also known as fgr/badh2 /osbadh2/os2AP gene) which was mapped on chromosome 8. An 8-bp deletion in the exon 7 of this gene was reported to result in truncation of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenease enzyme whose loss-of-function lead to the accumulation of a major aromatic compound (2AP) in fragrant rice. Among the different sampling methods and analytical techniques for the extraction and quantification of scentedness, simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) is traditional and normalized, whereas solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) are new, very simple, rapid, efficient and most importantly solvent-free methods. These methods are coupled with Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS), Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and/or Gas chromatography olfactometry (GC-O) and also with sensory evaluation for readily examining 2AP compound found in rice. The major factor affecting the aroma in rice was their genetic makeup. However, the aroma quality may be differed due to different planting, pre-harvest and postharvest handling and storage. For a more extensive elucidation of all effective and fundamental factors contributing to fragrance, it is essential to explore target quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and their inheritance and locations.
Part of the book: Integrative Advances in Rice Research