Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation represents the only potentially curative therapeutic approach for Acute Myeloid Leukemia. The choice to perform an allogeneic hematopoietic transplant is the result of a decision-making process that considers disease-related factors (AML-risk category and the state of disease at the time of transplant), the type of donor available and his characteristics (HLA compatibility, gender, CMV serostatus) and the individual risk associated with the procedure itself. The choice of the appropriate conditioning regimen depends on the patient’s age and comorbidities. While the introduction of reduced intensity regimen and the availability of alternative donors allows more patients to be eligible for transplantation, myeloablative conditioning remains the standard of care for fit patients. Disease relapse is the leading cause of treatment failure and new strategies attempting at reducing the relapse incidence post transplantation are currently being investigated.
Part of the book: Acute Leukemias