Environmental contamination and the tolerance developed by the pests, pathogens are some of the environmental issues related to the aimless utilization of chemical pesticides. It has became matter of serious concern for environment, food quality and soil health. Nanotechnology, envisaged as a swiftly emerging field has capability to reform food systems in agriculture. Nanotechnology provides an imperishable solution to these problems by the establishment of nano-pesticides. The functional components or the conveyor molecules used are of nano size. The performance of these nano sized particles is much better the traditional pesticides, as the smaller size aids in proper spreading on the pest surface. Amelioration in solubility of operational components, betterment in stability of formulation, gradual liberation of operational components and enhancement in mobility are some of the paramount advantages of nano particles attributed to the minute size of particles and greater surface area. Thus, nano particles have strengthened activity against target pests in comparison to bulk materials. Furthermore, nano-formulations sustain productive use in agriculture by offering systemic properties, uniform leaf coverage and enhanced soil properties. Despite all the positive aspects, it might have certain negative effects as well, like exposure of humans through distinct routes Viz, exposure to nano pesticides either directly or indirectly like adsorption through skin, or inhalation while breathing air or transfer from one energy level to another by taking contaminated food and water.
Part of the book: Agricultural Development in Asia
The prime concern for sustainable production is linked with biotic and abiotic pressures in environment as it impedes yield by producing ROS, which damage cell organelles and other biomolecules. Also the population is increasing at an alarming rate along with the climate change thereby leading to food insecurity. The only alternative to food security is adoption of Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), as it provides an environmental-friendly and green substitute to chemical substance and traditional agricultural practices to achieve sustainable agriculture by enhancing plant growth and resistance to various pressures. The functions carried out by these microbes in agriculture include nutrient uptake, resistance of host plant to various animate and inanimate pressures. These surround the roots and affect the growth and development through various direct and indirect ways. Furthermore, they have the ability to combat harmful influence of pressures like salinity, drought, heavy metals, floods, and other stresses on plants by inducing the production of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. To meet the increasing demand for food, and to evade environmental degradation, the utilization of PGPR consortium is a sustainable and ecofriendly technique to ameliorate the effectiveness of resource utilization and enhancing production under extreme climatic conditions and under increasing population.
Part of the book: Symbiosis in Nature