In this chapter, new heat transfer enhancement technologies with unidirectional porous metal called “EVAPORON” and “Lotus’ Breathing” are introduced to remove and manage heat from high heat flux equipment. The unidirectional porous metals introduced here can be easily fabricated by unique techniques such as mold casting technique, explosive welding technique, and 3D printing technique. First of all, many kinds of porous media, which have been introduced by the author so far as a heat transfer promoter, are compared each other to clarify what kind of porous metal is more suitable for high heat flux removal and cooling by focusing on the permeability and the effective thermal conductivity. For the practical use of the unidirectional porous copper with high permeability and high thermal conductivity, at first, heat transfer performance of two-phase flow cooling using a heat removal device called “EVAPORON” is reviewed aiming at extremely high heat flux removal beyond 10 MW/m2. We have been proposing this device with the unidirectional porous copper fabricated by 3D printing technique as the heat sink of a nuclear fusion divertor and a continuous casting mold. Second, two-phase immersion cooling technique called “Lotus’ Breathing” utilizing “Breathing Phenomenon” is introduced targeting at thermal management of various electronics such as power electronics and high performance computers. The level of the heat flux is 0.1 MW/m2 to 5 MW/m2. In addition, as the other heat transfer enhancing technology with unidirectional porous metals, unidirectional porous copper pipes fabricated by explosive welding technique are also introduced for heat transfer enhancement of single-phase flow.
Part of the book: Porous Fluids