In recent years, alternatives have been sought for the reuse of lignocellulosic waste generated by agricultural and other industries because it is biodegradable and renewable. Lignocellulosic waste can be used for a wide variety of applications, depending on their composition and physical properties. In this chapter, we focus on the different treatments that are used for the extraction of natural cellulose fibers (chemical, physical, biological methods) for more sophisticated applications such as reinforcement in biocomposites. Due to the different morphologies that the cellulose can present, depending from sources, it is possible to obtain cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), micro- nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC/NFC), and bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) with different applications in the industry. Among the different cellulose nanomaterials highlighted characteristics, we can find improved barrier properties for sound and moisture, the fact that they are environmentally friendly, increased tensile strength and decreased weight. These materials have the ability to replace metallic components, petroleum products, and nonrenewable materials. Potential applications of cellulose nanomaterials are present in the automotive, construction, aerospace industries, etc. Also, this chapter exhibits global market predictions of these new materials or products. In summary, lignocellulosic residues are a rich source of cellulose that can be extracted to obtain products with high value-added and eco-friendly characteristics.
Part of the book: Biotechnological Applications of Biomass