We aimed to elucidate prevalence and association of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) from Pakistan. In this cross-sectional study, about 225 DFU patients who underwent ophthalmic examinations within 6 months of diagnosis of foot ulceration were included. The medical records of 305 diabetic patients without DFU were included as controls. The association of DR with DFU was assessed by comparing DFU patients with proliferative DR (PDR) and DFU patients without PDR. Out of 225 DFU patients, 215 patients (95.6%) had DR and 169 patients (75.1%) had PDR. The prevalence of DFU was significantly greater (P = 0.0527) among the male diabetic patients, whereas advanced age of these patients (≥41 years) had a significant effect (P = 0.0286) on development and progression of PDR. A longer duration of diabetes (≥10 years) was identified as a significant contributing factor for the development of both DFU (P = 0.0029) and PDR (P = 0.0299). Moreover, the risk of PDR increased in diabetic patients with higher DFU grades (grade 3 and grade 4). In conclusion, retinopathy was prevalent in DFU patients. Therefore, DFU patients with advancing age and longer duration of diabetes should undergo retinal examinations for timely diagnosis and management of DR.
Part of the book: Frontiers in Ophthalmology and Ocular Imaging
Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable raw material. Industrial interest with new technology has grown to take advantage of this raw material. Different microbial enzymes are treated with biomass to produce the desired products under ideal industrial conditions. Xylanases are the key enzymes that degrade the xylosidic linkages in the xylan backbone of the biomass, and commercial enzymes are categorized into different glycoside hydrolase families. Thermophilic microorganisms are an excellent source of thermostable enzymes that can tolerate the extreme conditions of industrial processing. Thermostability of xylanases from thermophilic microorganisms has given the importance for a specific activity at elevated temperatures and distinction due to biochemical properties, structure, and mode of action. Optimized xylanases can be produced through genetic engineering: a novel xylanase is isolated from an extreme environment and then genetically modified to improve suitability for industrial contexts. Recombinant protein techniques have made it possible to engineer and express thermostable xylanases in bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. We will discuss the biotechnological potential of xylanases from thermophilic microorganism and the ways they are being optimized and expressed for industrial applications.
Part of the book: Biotechnological Applications of Biomass