Recent studies have indicated that legume proteins can be potentially used as an alternative to animal-derived protein ingredients for many food and biomaterial applications, however some modifications may be first required to improve their functionality since they show relatively lower solubility and functional properties compared to commonly used animal-based proteins. A variety of physical, chemical or biological processes can be used to achieve these modifications in structural, physicochemical, and functional properties of legume proteins. The aim of this chapter was to review the most recent studies focusing on modification of structural properties and improvement of functionality of legume proteins. Effects of processing conditions on protein functionality were discussed. Special emphasis was given to the structure–function mechanisms behind these changes. Since the performance of modified legume proteins has been shown to depend on a variety of factors; parameters used in the modification process have to be optimized to achieve the desired level of improvement in legume protein functionality. Each modification method has been indicated to have its own advantages and limitations in terms of performance and applicability in different food matrices. Further studies are required to investigate the interactions of modified legume proteins with other food components during food processing and storage. Furthermore, additional research on the effects of modification treatments on flavor profile and nutritional properties of legume proteins is needed as well.
Part of the book: Grain and Seed Proteins Functionality
Seeds such as quinoa, amaranth, chia, and teff are considered as potential sources of plant-based proteins for human consumption. Proteins isolated from pseudocereal grains have the potential to serve as nutritious alternatives to animal-based proteins for various food applications. Quinoa, amaranth, and chia proteins are among the most extensively studied pseudocereal proteins for the characterization of structural, physicochemical, and functional properties. This chapter will review the recent studies on composition, structural characteristics, physicochemical and functional properties of proteins isolated from pseudocereal grains, will discuss several modifications applied for improvement of functional properties and some potential end-product applications.
Part of the book: Pseudocereals