Fibromyalgia (FM) or Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a neurodegenerative disorder causing musculoskeletal pain, tenderness, stiffness, fatigue, and sleep disorder in the body. It is one of the most common chronic pain conditions, affecting about 6% of the world population. Being refractory, till date, no specific treatment of this disease is available. Accumulating evidences over the last few decades indicate that proinflammatory macrophages, cytokines, & chemokines as the key players in this disease. Recent findings suggest activation of Microglial cells and associated pro-inflammatory signals as one of the major causes of chronic pain in patients suffering from fibromyalgia. Increased density of iNOs/CD68+ M1 effector macrophages has been associated with neuropathic pain models. In light of this, depletion of these pro-inflammatory macrophages has been shown to reduce sensitivity to neuropathic pain. On the other hand, modulating pattern of AGEs (Advanced Glycation End-Products) can also contribute to inactivation of macrophages. These findings strongly suggest that macrophages are critical in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Therefore, this chapter highlights the impact of macrophage plasticity in various immunopathological aspects of fibromyalgia.
Part of the book: Macrophages