The inflammation response requires the cooperation of macrophages with immune cell function and active factors, such as cytokines and chemokines. Through this response, these factors are involved in the immune response to affect physiological activities. Macrophages can be categorized into two types: ‘M1’ and ‘M2’. M1 macrophages destroy the pathogen through phagocytosis activation, ROS production, and antigen-presenting, among other functions. M2 macrophages release cellular factors for tissue recovery, growth, and angiogenesis. Studies have determined that tumour tissue presents with numerous macrophages, termed tumour-associated macrophages. Tumour cells and peripheral stromal cells stimulate the tumour associated with macrophages (M2) to produce factors that regulate angiogenesis. Modulating the balance of the M1 and M2 function has already gained interest as a potentially valuable immune disease therapy. However, applications of the immunotherapy in clinical treatments are still not clear with regard to the cellular working mechanism. Therefore, we summarized the functions of common biomaterials involved in the modulation of the macrophage.
Part of the book: Macrophages
β-Glucan and triterpenes are two important derivative compounds from traditional medicinal mushroom, such as Ganoderma lucidum and Antrodia cinnamomea. β-glucan and triterpenes are considered to have immunoregulatory properties in disease treatment for long years. The immunoregulatory effects are usually activated through some transcription of pro-inflammatory genes and possess immunomodulatory activity. Difficulty in healing wound now is a common condition that occurred in diabetic patients, and the physiological hyperglycemic status of diabetic patients resulting in the wounds continue to produce an inflammatory response. Thus, we hope to use β-glucan and triterpenes for difficult wound healing that possess immunomodulatory activity on the wound micro-environment and stimulate the positive effects on healing. In this chapter, these two important derivative compounds from traditional medicinal mushroom were examined by diabetic mammal’s wound healing models. In these models, the skin wounds’ microenvironment is expected close to diabetic foot, suffering in hyperglycemic and inflammatory status. The results are clearly presented, with the immunomodulatory effects from mushroom β-glucan and triterpenes that involved in modulating the cell-mediated immune system to cause cellular proliferation and further to introduce healing performance of the chronic inflammation wounds.
Part of the book: The Eye and Foot in Diabetes