Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide, accounting for 8.8 million deaths in 2015. The landscape of cancer therapeutics is rapidly advancing with development of new and sophisticated approaches to diagnostic testing. Treatment plan for early diagnosed patients include radiation therapy, tumor ablation, surgery, immunotherapy and chemotherapy. However the treatment can only be initiated when the cancer has been diagnosed thoroughly. Theranostics is a term that combines diagnostics with therapeutics. It embraces multiple techniques to arrive at comprehensive diagnosis, molecular images and an individualized treatment regimen. Recently, there is an effort to tangle the emerging approach with nanotechnologies, in an attempt to develop theranostic nanoplatforms and methodologies. Theranostic approach to management of cancer offers numerous advantages. They are designed to monitor cancer treatment in real time. A wide variety of theranostic nanoplatforms that are based on diverse nanostructures like magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanomaterials, polymeric nanoparticles and silica nanoparticles showed great potential as cancer theranostics. Nano therapeutic platforms have been successful in integrating image guidance with targeted approach to treat cancer.
Part of the book: Molecular Pharmacology
Vitamins play important roles in female health. They are essential for many functions, including menstruation and ovulation, oocyte (egg) quality and maturation. Vitamin E was first discovered in 1922 as a substance necessary for reproduction. It has become widely known as a powerful lipid-soluble antioxidant. There are various reports on the benefits of vitamin E on health in general. Vitamin E helps your body create and maintain red blood cells, healthy skin, eyes and strengthens your natural immune system. However, despite it being initially discovered as a vitamin necessary for reproduction, to date studies relating to its effects in this area are lacking. Vitamin E supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications involving oxidative stress, such as pre-eclampsia. This chapter is written to provide a review of the known roles of vitamin E in pregnancy.
Part of the book: Vitamin E in Health and Disease