Traditionally, power system operation has relied on supply side flexibility from large fossil-based generation plants to managed swings in supply and/or demand. An increase in variable renewable generation has increased curtailment of renewable electricity and variations in electricity prices. Consumers can take advantage of volatile electricity prices and reduce their bills using electricity storage. With reduced fossil-based power generation, traditional methods for balancing supply and demand must change. Electricity storage offers an alternative to fossil-based flexibility, with an increase expected to support high levels of renewable generation. Electrochemical storage is a promising technology for local energy systems. In particular, lithium-ion batteries due to their high energy density and high efficiency. However, despite their 89% decrease in capital cost over the last 10 years, lithium-ion batteries are still relatively expensive. Local energy systems with battery storage can use their battery for different purposes such as maximising their self-consumption, minimising their operating cost through energy arbitrage which is storing energy when the electricity price is low and releasing the energy when the price increases, and increasing their revenue by providing flexibility services to the utility grid. Power rating and energy capacity are vitally important in the design of an electricity storage system. A case study is given for the purpose of providing a repeatable methodology for optimally sizing of a battery storage system for a local energy system. The methodology can be adapted to include any local energy system generation or demand profile.
Part of the book: Microgrids and Local Energy Systems