The concept of microgrids goes back to the early years of the electricity industry although the systems then were not formally called microgrids. Today, two types of microgrids can be seen: independent and grid connected. The protection requirement of these two types differs as the protection needs of an independent microgrid are intended for protecting components and systems within the microgrid, whereas a grid connected microgrid demands both internal and external protection. The first part of this chapter is dedicated to independent microgrids. How protection devices such as residual current circuit breakers, miniature and moulded case circuit breakers, and surge protective devices should be selected for an example microgrid is discussed while referring to the relevant standards. In the next section, the protection of a grid connected microgrid is discussed. Particularly, micro-source protection, microgrid protection, loss of mains protection and fault ride-through requirements are discussed while referring to two commonly used distributed generator connection codes. An example with simulations carried out in the IPSA simulation platform was used to explain different protection requirements and calculation procedures. Finally, grounding requirements are discussed while referring to different interfacing transformer connections and voltage source inverter connections.
Part of the book: Microgrids and Local Energy Systems