Biorelevant metal ions such as Cu2+ and Fe2+/Fe3+ participate in various biological events which include electron transfer reactions, delivery and uptake of oxygen, DNA and RNA syntheses, and enzymatic catalysis to maintain fundamental physiological processes in living organisms. So far, several analytical techniques have been investigated for their precise detection; however, luminescence-based sensing is often superior due to its high sensitivity, selectivity, fast and easy operation and convenient cellular imaging. Owing to their immense photophysical and photochemical properties stemming from large Stokes shift, absorption in visible region, good photostability and long excited state lifetimes, Ru(II)-polypyridyl-based complexes have gained increasing interest as luminophores. Over past few decades, several Ru(II)-polypyridyl based chemosensors have rapidly been developed for detection of different biorelevant and other metal ions. The main object of this book chapter is to cover a majority of Ru(II)-polypyridyl based chemosensors showing a selective and sensitive detection of bio-relevant Cu2+ and Fe2+/Fe3+ ions. The photophysical properties of Ru(II) complexes, detection of metal ions, sensing mechanism and applications of these sensors are discussed at a length.
Part of the book: Ruthenium