Anatomic and dosimetric changes occur in head and neck cancer during fractionated proton radiotherapy, and the actual dose received by patient is considerably different from original plan. Adaptive radiotherapy aims to modify treatment according to changes that occur during proton therapy. Intensity modulated proton therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients benefitted by adaptation to correct the dose perturbations caused by weight loss, tumor volume changes, setup and range uncertainties. The following sections have elaborated the rationale of adaptation in HNC, proton physics in HNC, studies comparing non-adaptive and adaptive intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans, reasons for adaptation and how to mitigate these changes.
Part of the book: Proton Therapy