Although the most common Chikungunya (do not capitalize the disease unless it is named after a proper noun such as Zika, Ebola or Carrion’s Disease) manifestations are osteoarticular, those which bring the most morbidity and mortality are neurological, where thorough mapping through studies with a methodological outline have not yet been well structured. Therefore, the objective was to review the literature to identify neurological manifestations of CHIKV. We used the Virtual Health Library (VHL) and PubMed with the following descriptors: #1 “Chikungunya” [MeSH]; #2 “neurological manifestations” [MeSH] and their equivalents in the Portuguese language, selecting literature published between July 2007 to January 2018. From the 180 studies that were found, 30 were selected. Findings were divided into two subcategories: “Chikungunya: Typical Neurological Manifestations” and “Chikungunya: Severe Neurological Manifestations”. The studies show that headaches were characterized as the most common symptom in adult patients affected by CHIKV, followed by meningeal involvement. Meningeal involvement is also a more serious clinical scenario associated with encephalitis, convulsions, polyneuropathies such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and death. CHIKV is a public health problem for many reasons including its chronic potential complications. Given the neurological symptoms, this disease is concerning in age extremes, for patients with comorbidities and for patients with more than one viral infection by arboviruses, in whom the most severe neurological manifestations are more common.
Part of the book: Current Perspectives on Viral Disease Outbreaks
The lack of specific treatment and knowledge about the exact pathophysiology of the 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its vaccines makes the organic aspects of the pandemic a concern and puts the psychiatric consequences and psychological effects of SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, in second place. Hence, the psychiatric impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have not been well established yet. We have performed an integrative literature review in three electronic databases: Medline, PsycINFO, and Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS). The findings were then divided into five subcategories: impacts of COVID-19 on the mental health of psychiatric patients; use of technology as an ally in combating impacts on mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic; mental health promotion measures in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic for the population; mental health promotion measures in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic for health professionals; and mental health in specific groups in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study has showed that the situation and measures proposed to fight the COVID-19 pandemic cause stress, anxiety, fear, and uncertainty in the population. Psychiatric patients, the elderly, refugees, and migrant workers are more vulnerable due to the stigmatization and lack of specialized support in health services and reduced access to medications. Therefore, they require care from governments and health authorities. In addition, measures to promote hospital health for health professionals seem to be essential to improve care and reduce the psychologic/psychiatric impacts on professionals. Thus, technology is a valuable ally in this process.
Part of the book: Fighting the COVID-19 Pandemic
During SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East Respiratory Distress Syndrome (MERS) outbreaks it was observed a particularly elevated incidence of cardiovascular disease among patients. With COVID-19, this correlation becomes evident again. However, the cardiovascular impacts by COVID-19 pandemic are not yet well established although publications about its potential deleterious effects are constant. Thus, aimed to carry a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis, the following question was used as a guide: what practical contributions does the scientific literature produced in the period of 2019-2020 has to offer about the impact of the COVID-19 on cardiovascular system? A systematic review of the literature using the Virtual Health Library (VHL) and PubMed with the following descriptors: #1 “cardiovascular disease” [MeSH] AND #2 “COVID-19” [keyword], as well as their equivalents in the Portuguese and Spanish language, during the period from December 2019 to March 2020 was performed. One hundred articles were found in Pubmed and twenty-seven were selected. In VHL there are 59 articles and four were selected totaling thirty-one papers. The findings were then divided into three subcategories: Etiology, Physiopathology and Risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 in Cardiovascular System; Clinical presentation, laboratory markers and imagenological aspects of SARS-CoV-2 in cardiovascular system; and Anti-Hypertensive Drugs, Cardiovascular System and SARS-CoV-2. When it comes to the cardiovascular system, these issues are aggravated and urge as a joint commitment from researchers, medical and governmental organizations to carry out more robust studies with bold methodologies aimed at mapping prognostic factors and assertive therapeutic approaches in the management of cardiovascular complications of COVID- 19.
Part of the book: Fighting the COVID-19 Pandemic
The developing and delivering of distance education (DE) courses in the stricto sensu reality in nursing arises in order to strengthen training processes in this area to sensitize critical and reflective professional performance. Thus, this book chapter seeks to report the experience of master’s students of the Academic Master’s Course in Nursing at the Regional University of Cariri, Ceará, Brazil, in the construction and tutoring of a course in the DE modality. Descriptive study, of the experience-report type, resulting from the elaboration and development of a short course on COVID-19, offered in the modality of distance learning, by stricto sensu postgraduate students, destined to graduate nursing students. The experience of developing the short course was positive in the sense of teaching practices, and occurred collectively, through discussions and exchange of knowledge between professors and students, in a planned and organized way. Even before operational limitations, the total process of planning, designing, developing and delivering the short course was considered a successful experience. The recognition of the potentialities and difficulties of the process helped formulating and applying the short course, always based on objectives centered on the perspectives of the students and tutors.
Part of the book: E-Learning and Digital Education in the Twenty-First Century
Introduction: The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has shown to cause even more severe problems among pregnant women, increasing the incidence of complications before and after childbirth, especially cardiorespiratory problems, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Objectives: To describe the clinical outcome of SARS caused by SARS-CoV-2 in Brazilian pregnant women and to compare the rates of morbidity and mortality from other causes in this group, stratified by the following variables: gestational age and age group. Methodology: Observational, analytical study based on documents whose data were collected from the 2020 Epidemiological Report No. 40 in the database of the Brazilian Department of Health, from which morbidity and mortality data were extracted to calculate the lethality rate and compare rates using a binomial test with a significance level of 0.05. Results: Of the total number of pregnant women hospitalized for SARS, 4,467 (46.6%) were confirmed for COVID-19 and, of these, 233 died, corresponding to a lethality rate of 5.2%. Morbidity was higher in the third trimester of pregnancy, but the disease was more severe in the second trimester (7%), being worse in women aged 40 years and older (40–49; 8.7% and 50–59; 15.3%). A significant difference was observed in the rate of cases between the COVID-19 SARS group and the group with other causes in all gestational strata and age groups. As for deaths, a significant difference was found in the rates between the first and third trimesters, and in pregnant women aged 10 to 19 years. Conclusion: Considering the variables under analysis, evidence shows that pregnant women at an advanced age and in the second trimester of pregnancy contribute to the lethal outcome of the disease. Other variables associated with the presence of comorbidities and quality of care for pregnant women should be considered in the model in future studies.