Osteoarthrosis is the most common chronic joint condition, the aetiology of which is still not completely clear. Initial phases of disease are treated conservatively applying physical rehabilitation procedures and medications. Advanced stages need surgical treatment with numerous procedures, depending on the joint affected. Joint arthroplasties are procedure of choice, especially for big joints of the extremities. As osteoarthrosis occurs bilaterally very frequently, there are a growing number of patients in need for operation of both joints. Those procedures can be performed under single anaesthesia or staged procedure, with delay between two surgeries. There are many advantages and disadvantages of both approaches cited by different authors. There is consensus of authors in available articles regarding benefits of single-stage procedure: lower cost, shorter hospital stay, single rehabilitation period and better functional results. Authors disagree about safety of a single-stage bilateral procedure as well as incidence of complications and criteria for selection of patients for safe performing of simultaneous procedure.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Bone Tumours and Osteoarthritis
Type of dentition, number of teeth in primary and permanent dentition, and appearance of the teeth in both dentitions have been extensively described in the literature. There are 20 teeth in primary dentition and 32 in permanent dentition. Teeth typically exhibit normal appearance, although small variations may appear. Abnormal teeth can be detected via careful clinical or radiographical observation. Variations in appearance, structure, and eruption of teeth can be influenced by factors such as genetics, trauma, certain drugs, and periapical lesions. These factors can alter teeth shape, number, size, and position. Teeth with anomalies can have a negative impact on a person’s appearance as well as functions such as eating and can even lead to psychological problems. They can be detected with different X-ray techniques, but cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is the most precise.
Part of the book: Human Teeth