The world health organization (WHO) has predicted a global amount of 19 million cancer cases by 2025. Breast, prostate and lung cancer are common cancer types and show metastasis in 60 to 84% of the cases, with 75 to 90% experiencing life-altering cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP), characterized by continuous, dull progressive pain with movement-induced incident peaks and random breakthrough spikes. Therefore, it is the most difficult pain condition to treat. CIBP is a unique type of pain with neuropathic and nociceptive components. Briefly, an invading tumor cell disturbs the healthy balance of the bone resulting in an acidic microenvironment, activating sensory fibers in the bone. The invaded tumor cell and adjacent stromal cells secrete mediators initiating an immune response with transcriptional signaling, resulting in increased cytokines and growth factors. Sensory nerve fibers are damaged and start to sprout, causing ectopic firing, and as tumors grow in size they activate mechanoreceptors. Aside from bisphosphonates and antibody therapy, CIBP is treated by a range of NSAIDs to strong opioids, but remains undertreated in one-third of cases. This chapter discusses the accompanying CIBP of bone tumors, the mechanism of action and current treatments.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Bone Tumours and Osteoarthritis