Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a technology able to measure information about the spectral reflectance or transmission of light from the surface. The spectral data, usually within the ultraviolet and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, provide information about the interaction between light and different materials within the image. This fact enables the identification of different materials based on such spectral information. In recent years, this technology is being actively explored for clinical applications. One of the most relevant challenges in medical HSI is the information extraction, where image processing methods are used to extract useful information for disease detection and diagnosis. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the information extraction techniques for HSI. First, we introduce the background of HSI, and the main motivations of its usage for medical applications. Second, we present information extraction techniques based on both light propagation models within tissue and machine learning approaches. Then, we survey the usage of such information extraction techniques in HSI biomedical research applications. Finally, we discuss the main advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly used image processing approaches and the current challenges in HSI information extraction techniques in clinical applications.
Part of the book: Multimedia Information Retrieval