Plants synthesize and preserve a variety of metabolites known as natural products. Many of them are easily extractable and can be used as starting material or chemical scaffolds for various purposes, especially in drug discovery. Numbers of reports have listed valuable candidates with privilege scaffolds currently in active development as drugs. New compounds with anticancer and antiinfective activities have been discovered recently, some presented these backbones. The present book chapter aims to highlight these findings from plants which can be considered valuable for the development of new drugs against malignant cells and infective diseases. Interest in anti-infective agents is increasing due to the resistance of microorganisms to existing drugs and newly emerging infectious diseases. This resistance is also, nowadays, associated to some forms of cancers. In addition, the value of plants as essential part in the health care pipeline in low- and middle-income countries is under consideration even though these countries are almost all surrounded by a rich and untapped biodiversity. People are always relying on “modern drugs and treatment” which is unfortunately not affordable to all. Therefore, the present compilation of data on plant-derived compounds can inspire the formulation of ameliorated traditional medicines (ATM) against the targeted diseases and the conservation of species.