There are several sources from which hydroxyapatite (HAp) can be obtained and may be broadly categorized as synthetic or biogenic. Elevated interest in recent times has pushed for the development of several procedures for extracting HAp from biogenic wastes due to their excellent composition and morphology resemblance to the human calcified tissue (B-type carbonated HAp). Notable biogenic sources reported for HAp extraction span bovine bones, fish scales, corals, eggshells, and snails among other calcium-rich sources. However, most of the synthetic methods are laborious and therefore result in high production costs. In this chapter, we discuss the synthesis of B-type carbonate substituted HAp from an untapped biogenic source, Achatina achatina shells, using a simple precipitation method and a controlled heat-treatment method. This unique treatment method affected the substitution resulting in different crystallographic parameters and revealed a novel material for bone implants and enamel applications.
Part of the book: Biomaterials