Synthesis, Processing, and Characterization of the Cobalt Alloys with Silicon Addition
The composition of the cobalt alloys contains only noncytotoxic elements (Cr, Si, and Mo) that ensure its biocompatibility, and consequently, the development and proliferation of cells at the implant/tissue interface. The cobalt alloy has an original composition with silicon addition and the proportion of the alloying elements was established so as to ensure a high biocompatibility and adequate physical-chemical characteristics for it to be used in various applications. Silicon is known to be a metal with a high biocompatibility; it can replace noble/non-noble metals in commercial alloys, thereby excluding the occurrence of any toxic corrosion products. We chose it as an alloying element because it confers good casting properties, has double role as hardener and oxidant, ensures an increase in the resistance to tear, and offers a proper fluidity in the liquid phase.
Part of the book: Cobalt
Advanced Electro-Spark Deposition Process on Metallic Alloys
This chapter will study the material base-surface multilayer system for various types of depositions (increasing the wear resistance of Fe-C alloy parts) whose compatibility with the substrate provides high-quality parts. Thus, this system of layers can be applied on both the new and worn parts, being able to recondition and reintroduce in an intensive exploitation regime any parts with complex configuration operating in dynamic conditions. Deposited layers will be obtained using electro-spark deposition (ESD) process, which is a technology that uses electrical energy stored in a capacitor to initialize an electrical spark between the cathode and the anode. The high temperature generated by the electrical spark leads to partial melting of substrate and mixing of it with the material of the electrode. Between the two electric sparks, the amount of the molten metal solidifies to form the surface layer. The ESD is a very well used process for materials manufacturing in many industrial sectors.
Part of the book: Advanced Surface Engineering Research
Aspects Regarding Thermal-Mechanical Fatigue of Shape Memory Alloys
This chapter presents advanced researches about the using of metallic alloys with shape memory properties in construction and exploitation of parts subjected to combined stress by thermal and mechanical fatigue during their functioning. The shape memory alloys (SMAs) have a series of properties much different from the usual metallic materials. Their main characteristic is recovery/returning from plastic deformation by heating, considering that in some cases at temperature changing, the shape modification is reversible. In the case of parts made from SMA, which work in conditions by thermal and mechanical stresses and temperature variations, the resistance evaluation at thermal and mechanical fatigue is absolutely necessary. Like researching domain, regarding thermal and mechanical fatigue behavior, it was selected the shape memory Cu-based alloy. The achieved researches, concerning methodology, investigation equipment, experimental results, allow evaluating and estimating the shape memory properties. Losing the shape memory properties of SMA, in requested conditions, namely amnesia, so to the calculation of fatigue resistance must be taken into account by this fundamental property. The expression of the fatigue state, through losing the memorizing capacity, represents a designing indicator, which ensures the guaranty of properties in fatigue conditions, through applying of fatigue cycles. To determine the fatigue resistance of SMA was necessary specific requests. The properties are guaranteed for a certain number of fatigue cycles. The experimental data, presented in this chapter, offer to scientists some information about the SMAs, Cu-based. These data can be used in designing and manufacturing of new parts for different devices.
Part of the book: Shape-Memory Materials
High Entropy Alloys for Medical Applications
A wide variety of metallic biomaterials have been developed so far, including various types of alloys. However, there is a strong need in the medical field for new solutions in what concerns metallic biomaterials with superior biocompatibility and mechanical properties in order to meet future requirements, including the recently developed high entropy alloys (HEAs). This chapter presents some characteristics of high entropy biocompatible metallic alloys produced in an electric-arc remelting furnace in argon inert atmosphere. The effects of the chemical elements used, the microstructural features, and some mechanical characteristics, both in the cast state or after some heat treatments, are highlighted.
Part of the book: Engineering Steels and High Entropy-Alloys
Development of New Advanced Ti-Mo Alloys for Medical Applications
The use of titanium and titanium-based alloys with applications in implantology and dentistry has made remarkable progress in the promotion of new technologies and new materials that have been developed in recent years. This is justified thanks to their excellent mechanical, physical, and biological performance. Today’s generation promotes new titanium alloys, with nontoxic elements and long-term performance and without rejection of the human body. This book chapter describes new original compositions of Ti-based alloys for medical applications, with improved properties compared to existing classical alloys (C.p. Ti, Ti6Al4V, CoCrMo, etc.). The addition of nontoxic elements such as Mo, Si, Zr, and Ta brings benefits as reduced modulus of elasticity, increased corrosion resistance, and improved biocompatibility.
Part of the book: Biomaterials
The Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Geopolymers Using Mine Tailings as Precursors View all chapters
Mine tailings are waste materials that resulted from the extraction and processing of raw materials to form mineral products. These dusty particles present negative environmental effects after being deposited in different types of dumping areas. Based on the circular economy concepts and the presently pushing need of identifying wastes as a potential replacement for natural resources, this chapter aims to present the physical (density, microstructure) and mechanical (compressive strength, flexural strength) characteristics of different types of geopolymers which use mine tailings as precursors or blended systems (mixes of different raw materials). The main reasons of approaching this topic are the need to decrease the consumption of natural resources, reduce environmental pollution and create an economic system aimed to capitalize the mining wastes. Accordingly, this chapter includes information regarding the availability of this waste and its potential utilization as a raw material in civil engineering applications. Therefore, reports of specific agencies and multiple research studies which approach tailing based geopolymers or blended systems have been summarized.
Part of the book: Advances in Geopolymer-Zeolite Composites