Chemical biology is the scientific discipline that deals with the application of chemical techniques and often small molecules produced through synthetic chemistry, to the manipulation and study of biological systems. Its working framework ranges from simple chemical entities to complex drugs by employing the principles of biological origin. This chapter particularly focuses on the principles and working models of chemical biology to discover new drug leads. Drug discovery is an extensive and multifaceted complex process. Chemical biology uses both natural and synthetic compounds with the best therapeutic potential and verifies them by employing the best possible chemical toolsets. Screening of compounds is done by the use of phenotypic as well as the target-based screening to identify and characterize the potent hits. After the identification of target, it is characterized, and validated by extensive testing. The next step is the validation of hits obtained, and lead compounds are tested in clinical trials before introducing them for commercial application.
Part of the book: Cheminformatics and its Applications
Almond (Prunus dulcis), a stone fruit belonging to a family Rosaceae (rose) is broadly cultivated for ornament and fruit. Within this genus, the almond is very much associated with the peach, and these two fruits share the same subgenus the Amygdalus. About 430 species are spread all through the northern temperate regions of the world. The Mediterranean climate region of the Middle East like Turkey and Pakistan eastward to Syria is native to the almond and its related species. Almond is one of the ancient fruit trees known to the Asian as well as European regions with the most primitive proof of cultivation dating about 2000 B.C. Prunus dulcis (Almond) is a nutrient-loaded nut crop. Almond possesses a great genetic diversity due to the genetically controlled self-incompatibility system which can be estimated by a morphological characteristic including molecular markers and isoenzymes with a wide range of marker techniques. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) involving RFLP or SNP are the most commonly used molecular techniques among the DNA-based molecular symbols. Particular agronomic characters, e.g. kernel bitterness or self-compatibility can also be traced by these molecular markers. The direct association between the level of diversity and the basis of the germplasm cannot be understood by the studies of genetic diversity. Genetic diversity cannot be seriously lost by self-compatibility in almonds. The breeding, conservation, and cultivation of wild-growing almonds may similarly advantageous after the genetic diversity research studies (especially those applying molecular markers).
Part of the book: Prunus
Petroleum and oil industry is a rich source of nonrenewable energy that ultimately results in threatening of ecosystem due to emission of greenhouse gases into the environment. In the current panorama of the energy demand, industries focus on alternate and renewable energy resources to meet energy gaps. Thus, an expedient fuel cell based on microbes can be valued as an economical and ecofriendly substitute of energy generator. These microbial fuel cells have commercialized platinum electrodes to generate cost-effective energy after oxidation of organic wastes catalyzed by biocatalyst. Nowadays, conventional carbon electrode as an anode is taking popularity in microbial fuel cell but displays poor performance. So, to improve the chemistry of electrodes, nano-composites fabricated from polar polymeric material as well as cost-effective oxides of metals are the raw material. In this chapter, green synthesis of nano-composites from conducting polymers and oxides of transition metals has been discussed. Anode modification by composite to treat wastewater as well as its role to generate electricity has been discussed briefly.
Part of the book: Gold Nanoparticles and Their Applications in Engineering