The drug discovery process from hit-to-lead has been a challenging task that requires simultaneously optimizing numerous factors from maximizing compound activity, efficacy to minimizing toxicity and adverse reactions. Recently, the advance of artificial intelligence technique enables drugs to be efficiently purposed in silico prior to chemical synthesis and experimental evaluation. In this chapter, we present fundamental concepts of artificial intelligence and their application in drug design and discovery. The emphasis will be on machine learning and deep learning, which demonstrated extensive utility in many branches of computer-aided drug discovery including de novo drug design, QSAR (Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship) analysis, drug repurposing and chemical space visualization. We will demonstrate how artificial intelligence techniques can be leveraged for developing chemoinformatics pipelines and presented with real-world case studies and practical applications in drug design and discovery. Finally, we will discuss limitations and future direction to guide this rapidly evolving field.
Part of the book: Cheminformatics and its Applications