Autologously prepared bone marrow aspirate concentrates, have the potential to play an adjunctive role in various patient pathologies that have not been able to heal with conventional treatment modalities. The use of bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and concentrates in regenerative medicine treatment plans and clinical applications is based on the fact that bone marrow cells, including progenitor and nucleated cells, platelets, and other cytokines, support in tissue healing and tissue regenerative processes. The use of concentrated BMA cells focuses primarily on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types. Concentrated bone marrow cells can be retrieved from harvested BMA and ensuing minimal manipulative cell processing techniques, executed at point of care (POC). The application of bone marrow biological therapies may offer solutions in musculoskeletal pathologies, spinal disorders, chronic wound care, and critical limb ischemia (CLI), to effectively change the local microenvironment to support in tissue healing and facilitate tissue regeneration. This chapter will address the cellular content of bone marrow tissue, harvesting and preparation techniques, and discuss the biological characteristics of individual marrow cells, their inter-connectivity, and deliberate on the effects of BMA concentration.
Part of the book: Regenerative Medicine