Nanofiber has attracted increasing attention owing to its wide applications such as filtration, drug delivery, wound dressing, separator, etc. A lot of fabrication methods are developed in the last few decades, electrospinning method is the most frequently utilized method for producing nanofiber. However, electrospinning features a use of electrical field to produce nanofiber, which have obviously high production cost and a big burden on the environment. And several limitations are observed such as orientation of fibers and limited options of polymer and solvents, so many researchers try to develop more facile and more effective method for making nanofiber. In this chapter, recent developed fabrication methods, handspinning, direct writing, touch and brush spinning, are discussed and the advantages of each methods are described, respectively. They utilize a simple mechanical force instead of electrical force, which delivers great benefits to producing nanofiber such as orientation of fibers along with the force direction, reduction of every cost, availability of various options for selecting polymer and solvents, and a facility to design a pattern with high precision. Those innovative and novel methods will enable us to make functional nanofibers more effective than traditional methods; consequently, they will broaden the application of nanofibers.
Part of the book: Novel Aspects of Nanofibers
Nanowires aim at developing advanced architectures are gaining popularity for damaged neural systems. The retina with a complicated structure is an essential part of our visual nervous system. Any disorder inside retina could lead to blindness due to irregularity in transferring neural signals to the brain. In recent years, the emergence of nanostructures, as well as nanowires, has provided a viable means for enhancing the regeneration of retinal. Nanowires with the ability to sense light and converting it to the electrical signals simulate the extracellular electrical properties, which are the newest nanostructures for the retinal applications. The different structure of nanowires has been examined in vitro, and several others are undergoing in vivo for vision recovery. Among the structures, core-shell nanowires and functionalized nanowires with gold nanoparticles attract the attention for the regeneration of retinal neural systems. Herein, subsequently provide an introduction to the anatomy of the retina, and retinal disorders, the latest progress in the regeneration of retina and vision using nanowires will be reviewed. Also, the different structures, including core-shell and functionalized nanowires with nanoparticles, will be examined. Eventually, the point of view and perspective of applying nanowire in retinal regeneration will be offered.
Part of the book: Regenerative Medicine
This chapter intends to review the state of the art of a new nanomaterial generation based on electrospun composite nanofibers for dye removal from wastewater. Natural polymer-based nanofibers, nanofibers with unique morphology, and carbon nanofibers were comprehensively reviewed as capable carriers for a broad spectrum of functional materials such as metal oxides, zeolite, graphene and graphene oxide (GO), and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in the application of dye removal. The various nanostructures, adsorption capacity, advantages, and drawbacks were discussed along with mechanistic actions in the adsorption process and photocatalytic performance that emphasize current research development, opportunities, and challenges. The chapter covers multiple intriguing topics with in-depth discussion and is a valuable reference for researchers who are working on nanomaterials and the treatment of colored waters.
Part of the book: Composite and Nanocomposite Materials