This chapter discusses the development of an adaptive path tracking controller equipped with a knowledge-based supervisory algorithm for an autonomous heavy vehicle. The controller was developed based on a geometric/kinematic controller, the Stanley controller. One of the mostly known issues with any geometric/kinematic controller is that a properly tuned controller may not be valid in a different operating region than the one it was being tuned/optimised on. Therefore, this study proposes an adaptive algorithm to automatically choose an optimal controller parameter depending on the manoeuvring and vehicle conditions. An optimal knowledge database is developed for an adaptive algorithm to automatically obtain the parameter values based on the vehicle speed, v, and heading error, ϕ. Several simulations are carried out with different trajectories and speeds to evaluate the effectiveness of the controller against its predecessors, namely, Stanley and the non-adaptive modified Stanley (Mod St) controllers. The simulated steering actions are then compared against human driver’s experimental data along the predefined paths. It was shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm managed to guide the heavy vehicle successfully and adapt to various trajectories with different vehicle speeds while recording lateral error improvement of up to 82% compared to the original Stanley controller.
Part of the book: Automation and Control