A relativistically invariant representation of the generalized momentum of a particle in an external field is proposed. In this representation, the dependence of the potentials of the interaction of the particle with the field on the particle velocity is taken into account. The exact correspondence of the expressions of energy and potential energy for the classical Hamiltonian is established, which makes identical the solutions to the problems of mechanics with relativistic and nonrelativistic approaches. The invariance of the proposed representation of the generalized momentum makes it possible to equivalently describe a physical system in geometrically conjugate spaces of kinematic and dynamic variables. Relativistic invariant equations are proposed for the action function and the wave function based on the invariance of the representation of the generalized momentum. The equations have solutions for any values of the constant interaction of the particle with the field, for example, in the problem of a hydrogen-like atom, when the atomic number of the nucleus is Z > 137. Based on the parametric representation of the action, the expression for the canonical Lagrangian, the equations of motion, and the expression for the force acting on the charge are derived when moving in an external electromagnetic field. The Dirac equation with the correct inclusion of the interaction for a particle in an external field is presented. In this form, the solutions of the equations are not limited by the value of the interaction constant. The solutions of the problem of charge motion in a constant electric field, the problems for a particle in a potential well and the passage of a particle through a potential barrier, the problems of motion in an exponential field (Morse), and also the problems of a hydrogen atom are given.
Part of the book: Quantum Mechanics