Mangrove forests occupy approximately not more than 1% of the world’s forested land, according to experts. These important ecosystems are currently being lost at an alarming rate. Aquaculture, urban development, agriculture, and industrial development have been observed to be the major causes of these mangrove losses. Mangroves are an important source of ecosystem goods and services, among which are carbon sequestration, providing breeding and nursery grounds for several species of flora and fauna, materials, medicines, and climate change impact protection. Carbon dioxide capturing and sequestration is a system of man-made processes to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from utilities which use coal and gas. Mangroves can actually do this as natural carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) agents for mankind.
Part of the book: Carbon-Based Material for Environmental Protection and Remediation
Deltas are landforms, which come into existence when sediment carried by river or stream empties its load into another water body with slow flow rates or stagnant water. Sometimes, a river may empty its sediment load on land, although this is uncommon. The world’s deltas are amongst the most productive and in some cases more populated than even land. This chapter reviews the formation of deltas, the ecology and habitats of deltas as well as the biodiversity in coastal habitats and delta habitats. Additionally, the chapter looks at recent advances in deltas such as the loss of sediment and other stressors currently facing deltas with a focus on anthropogenic activities in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) that is amongst the most resource rich deltas in the world. The Mekong River Delta (MRD) is currently known to be in peril due to anthropogenic activities such as dam construction for hydropower and irrigation, overfishing, agricultural production amongst many others. Additionally, demographical trends like population increase have also been scrutinized to see the impacts on the MRD. The results of the review process have shown that at least 85% of the deltas in the world are subsiding and losing their fertility to the sea. Finally, the chapter has endeavored to come up with suggestions on how best to overcome some of these stressors resulting from the anthropogenic activities.
Part of the book: River Deltas Research