Thickener Water Neutralization by Mid‐Bottom and Fly Ash of Thermal Power Plants and CO2: Organic Humate Mud of AMD Treatment for Remediation of Agricultural Fields
Coal mining sites and copper sulphide mines caused polluting acidic mine waters. Acidic mine drainage (AMD) into the natural streams and agricultural field irrigation waters causes environmental pollution with dissolved contents having heavy metals or acidic aqueous solutions of habitats and living fish in the local ponds and irrigation ponds. It is necessary to collect the polluted mine waters in the impermeable ponds and treat or neutralize the acidic character by the aeration treatment and subsequently discharge to the stream waters. This study introduced chemical neutralization and aeration treatment of polluted acidic waters in Şırnak Coal Mine site and Siirt Copper Concentrator site as happens in wastewaters of chemical industries and textile processing plants. The construction engineering of collector ponds was also so much critical in the point of cost of a case remediation model and muddy fertilization by Şırnak Thermal Power Plant waste, bottom ash, and fly ash in agricultural fields soil in Şırnak Coal Mine site, and how these facts may affect the possibility of remediation in the future were discussed. Organic fertilizer matter of fumic acid and humic acid containing humate formed. Soil remediation process for both muddy bottom precipitates of treatment pools and aeration pools was collected and treated by CO2 saturatedwaters. The comparison of the common methods is described and discussed with fly ash utilization and CO2 gas of power plants containing alkali matter improved neutralization and carbon matter of soils.
Part of the book: Coal Fly Ash Beneficiation
Microwave Processing of Mixtures of Asphalt and Şırnak Asphaltite Slime - Development of The Compression Ability, Shear and Tension Strength
The research studied the main consideration of the road construction industry as one of the current consumptions in road aggregate-asphaltite slime mixed asphalt production in Turkey. There was a great awareness of the source of opportunities that polymer-modified mixtures had for road asphalt production (PMA). The shear strength might be developed by microwave processing on compression or during compression. This study searched for the mechanical properties of many mixtures of asphaltite slime and co-polymers by microwave treatment and compression. This study presented the model processing method for the best road cover and showed an overview on the characteristics of polymer-asphalt binders, used in the paving industry. The main fact emphasized was shear resistivity and tension strength development by asphaltite slime made on the regressed relationships of strength and advanced properties of the binder. The relationships between the mixture components of the binder and compression performance of the mixture were also determined.
Part of the book: Asphalt and Asphalt Mixtures
Microwave Radiated Sorption-Hazardous Emission Control by Popped Borax and Salted Pumice for Coal Combustion in Thermal Power Plants
Considerable research on emission control of coal combustion with popped borax and salted pumice has been conducted in this study. However, the packed bed column adsorption results are widely dispersed because of the complex chemistry of coal. Time-related hazardous emission, stack gas coal-mixing with slurries washing in microwave-heated packed bed column sorption units and cycling sorption modeling assumed basically first-order kinetic equations, or less sensitive for microwave heating rate. The other reactivity distributed on activation model was dependent on the microwave heating rate. The more advanced models for microwave radiation progressed sorption need three and four constants, respectively, which basically depend on the coal properties but also cover, to some extent, the effect of porosity and gas to salt mass transfer phenomena. That was the reactivity reason for the different conditions of sorbents values on the activation energy and pre-exponential factor. The same situation exists in the other sorbent case of coal-lead and CS, COS gas. The sorption reaction rate of popped borax and bed effected of the salt reaction of pumice and the specific surface area of pumice, which changed the sorption reaction cycle with the development of internal pores type.
Part of the book: Sorption in 2020s
Microwave Carbonation of Thermal Power Plant Flue Gas/CO2 by Fly Ash/Coal Char for Soil Remediation and Ground Stabilization
In this research, the cementing filler material production by microwave carbonation of flue gas of coal combusting thermal power station of Silopi in Şırnak by fly ash/coal char, Şırnak asphaltite char, in molten alkali salts will be investigated. The optimum carbonation was managed in order to provide an overview of stabilization of foundation grounds. In this study, the effect of microwave energy managed the carbonation by salt slurries with flue gas contents in the reactor. By the slurry character of salts in the furnace during that process, the flue gas of Şırnak thermal power plant, salt type and flue content were investigated for carbonation with weight and slurry performances. In this study, the toxic emitted contents were also determined in salt slurry, regarding the amounts and type of salt contents as sorbent agents. As a result, a significant positive effect of microwave energy on the carbonation products was determined at lower gas flow rate and steam rates. Finally, 23% CO2 carbonation could be provided. The oil content in flue gas decreased carbonation fractions. The salt slurry content was primarily settled and coal humus char as by-product was also recovered as solid with a 38.7% recovery rate in microwave carbonation in slurry salt with 20% solid/water rate. The strengths of the ground blocks were dispersed to 0.8–1.2 MPa in shear strength and 3.7–9.4 MPa in compression strength. Thus, with the ideal packing, the strength of the mixed cemented blocks produced from these fine fillers and waste mixtures can also reach 11.2 MPa in compression strength and 3.9 MPa in shear strength.
Part of the book: Carbon-Based Material for Environmental Protection and Remediation
Gypsum/Desulfurization Fly Ash/Activated Shale Char/Claystone of Şırnak with Popped Biochar Composite Granules as Fire Inhibitor for Fire Hazard Risk in Forest Management
Chemical hydrate analysis using gypsum and lime solution was carried out for dehydration of ashes in heavy heat and fire conditions. The 20–50 g pasted popped char samples soaked at higher temperatures of 750 and 500°C showed higher dehydration and heat sorption capacities and became increasingly nonlinear isotherm due to loss of ash surface on granule sites and dehydrogenation. However, this sorption of popped char was slower than other materials such as expanded clay, because microwave permittivity was attributed to their pore differences in solute molarities and sorption mechanisms. Inhibition of hydrate and CO2 source cooling flame was tested in our research to avoid the spread of forest fires into live bushes and forest areas due to distribution of hot flame of wind. The prospects were designed for construction of materials, such as bubbled gas, for arresting house fires. The similar materials can be produced using bio-waste materials and by-products of construction wastes or forest soil filling. In this study, porous limestone and porous anhydrite metalized stone absorbed the bubbled balls with microwave melted recycling anhydrite metalized powders covering the surface to avoid combustion. In this investigation, the recrystallized gypsum and powdered limestone were reroasted in microwave to melt anhydrite with the porous cores and basalt granules and even the bubbling of anhydrite metalized granules. The fillers finished was used for fire arrestor powder and soil, absorbing heat of fire which were determined as metalized coal carbon-rich forest soil were investigated for arrestor on floor test and deterioration of soil and heat sorption were calculated, respectively. For this purpose, heat resistance, heat sorption, and soil combustion experiments were conducted. As defined, the test results were conducted by comparing metal powders with high heat. The production flow sheet and advantageous process parameters using recycling coal shale and anhydrite gypsum microwave processing parameters were defined. To recrystallize anhydrite metalized carbon limestone, the composite balls of marls having the relation between composite rock formation and discontinuity at production have been established.
Part of the book: Advances in Forest Management under Global Change
Anchorage Pile Strengthening of Shale Slopes and Cementing Falling Stone Blocks by Mixture of Melted Waste Plastics/Asphalt and Fly Ash for Slope Stability in Asphaltite Open Pit Mining Site in Avgamasya, Şırnak
The Rock Fallings, Shale Slopes Stability, and Stability Risk Assessment in Şırnak open pit asphaltite mining should be searched in detail and improved in several coal mining sites in Şırnak Province, reaching over 120 m height with 60–65 degree shale slopes, developing major landslide in the open pit Şırnak open pit coal mining. The rock fallings endangered the mining safety in recent years. This research provided stability patterns and cementing method strengthening cracks. The stages of experimentation explored the geo-technical characteristics and geoological formation. Fort his aim, four different open pit mining areas with similar geotechnical conditions, two main strengthening methods, and patterns of researches were developed. Firstly, data on landslides and rock dynamics over explosions were followed, and secondly, as happened commonly in the past, the same geological, geomorphologic, hydrological, climatic conditions were taken. Anchorage pile strengthenıng of slopes and cementing falling stone blocks were performed by mixtures of melted waste plastics/asphalt and fly ash for stability of higher slopes over 120 m height and over 65 degree in asphaltite mining site in Silopi and Avgamasya open pit No.1 mining site in Şırnak were carried out. On the other hand, due to that creep style rock falling from top of slopes, those melted polymer cementing of anchorage bolting and cracks, to eliminate those falling failure types and features, will be advantageous. The unconditional expectations related to this study was also defined for this region, such as the influence of the ground water, rock cracks and slope design, and explosion exchange dynamics leading to landslide. GEO5 software and manual stability analysis showed high risk area for plotting.
Part of the book: Mining Techniques
Asphalt Fill Strengthening of Free Slip Surfaces of Shale Slopes in Asphaltite Open Quarry: Stability Analysis of Free Sliding Surface for Wet Shale Slopes in Avgamasya Asphaltite Open Quarry No 2. Site
The stability analysis carried out by GEO5 software and uses free sliding analysis by wet and pore saturated weight charting provided the safety factor of 1.35. The safety precautions were followed by inclinometers and wire extensometer measurements. The other pore saturated asphalt bound shear box and unaxial test compression tests were resulted in the geotechnical and geoseismical data over sliding soil /shale inter surface quality and the characteristics of free rock falling risk and discontinuity distribution, sub crack density and distribution on stereo nets were determined. The research was firstly followed the perched water levels on geoseismical data over causing water burst or explosion of highly free mud and landslides. The hazardous rock falls over saturated soil and uncohesive rock explosions. The proposed study was secondly as strengthening methods such as asphalt mixing as precautious on shear stabilization and other wire mesh barriers anchored. The free sliding cracks was filled by asphalt and compressed for stabilization strengthening known as the characteristics of avoiding shear falls in the future. The unconditional expectations related to this study was also defined for this region such as the influence of the ground water, rock cracks and slope design, explosion exchange dynamics leading to landslide.
Part of the book: Slope Engineering
Adsorption of Heavy Metals by Microwave Activated Shale/Asphaltite Char/Zeolite Granule Composts from Hazardous Sludges and Industrial Waste Slurries
There is a great concern about surface water pollution with high level mercury, lead (Pb) over 10 mg/l, 30 mg/l to the fishing lakes and streams in Şırnak Province even contaminating fresh water fishing and poisonening of human by merury and lead in thr region. The chromium over 50 mg/l from industrial seepages was disposed to lakes and streams in our country. There is a great green concern prompting land in order to control acidic mine waters so that the research study controlled and avoided hazardous metal limits of residual stream contaminants of heavy metals by sorption local clay and zeolite compost. The contamination rate changes to those based on seepage concentrations and wetness. The stream amendments, such as shale char carbonized from Şırnak asphaltite containing 52–60% shale activated by acid washing under microwave radiation as geo material composted for waste water treatment should control contaminated effluents concentration. The field studies to evaluate the stability of heavy metal concentrations and salts were scarce. The initial objective of this study was to determine the effects of seepage flow to surface and groundwater from the industrial discharge. In this study, important investigations have been made on composite granules production with Şırnak shale char and zeolite feed in order to activated in microwave oven 2 M HCl dissolution. The compost sorbent for high level heavy metal sorption in laboratory water packed bed column adsorption compost system. However, the results of filled packed bed zeolite yield high metal transfer to compost. Due to the complex chemistry of shale pores, and high porosity, heat conduction improved in the microwave sorption depended on granule size decreased. The other heavy metal sorption distribution was changed in the activation dependent on the microwave heating power.
Part of the book: Clay Science and Technology
Microwave Caustic Slurry Carbonation of Flue Gas of Coal Power Plants in Double Hot Tube Bed for CO2 Sequestration
There have been very few transport studies of caustic alkali slurry (metal fines-caustic alkali salt mixture). Bath serpentinite particle size changed the heat conductivity to salt bath. A major reason is that the retention time in fixed film processes is longer than in solid–gas processes. This allows more time to the heat absorption for cracking to the desorbed persistent compounds. Furthermore, heavy serpantinite allows an sufficient intimate contact between coal and biomass surface pores and gas atmosphere in the furnace due to more pyrolysis gas desorption. For seeing the sustainability sequestration and environmental concerns in feasibility sight, the microwave heating technologies encompassing natural carbonation, precipitates for soil remediation and toxic gas sorption was offered to be adopted in Şırnak Asphaltite/Batman Oil Fields cases. In many places, amine sequestration techniques can work synergistically for better results. This study determines to a great extent both the high rate and degree of carbonation under pressurized sludge at 5–10 bar so it was found that, a porous sludge bath over 45% sludge was more efficiently conducted even at a low amount serpantinite slime weight rate, below weight rate of 15%.
Part of the book: Carbon Capture
Concentration and Microwave Radiated Reduction of Southeastern Anatolian Hematite and Limonite Ores—Reduced Iron Ore ProductionView all chapters
The concentration of low grade iron ore resources was evaluated by washing and reduction. The advanced concentration methods for low grade limonite and hematite iron ores of South Eastern Anatolian resources required such specific methods. The followed column flotation and magnetic separation, microwave radiated reduction of hematite slime and limonite sand orewere investigated on potential reducing treatment. The bubling fluidized bed allows more time to the heat radiation and conduction for reducing to the resistive ıron compounds. Furthermore, heavy limonite and iron oxide allowed sufficient intimate contact coal and biomass through surface pores in the bubbling fluidized bed furnace due to more pyrolysis gas desorption. Bubbling bath porosity decreased by temperature decrease. This research was included reduction in microwave of poor hematite and limonite ores in the microwave ovens, but through smaller tubing flows as sintering shaft plants following column flotation and scavangering operation. Two principle stages could still manage prospective pre reduction granule and pellet production in new sintering plants. There is a lack of energy side which one can produce reduced iron ore in advanced technology plants worldwide. However, for the low grade iron ores such as limonite and sideritic iron ores it was thought that microwave reduction technique was assumed that this could cut energy consumption in the metallurgy plants.
Part of the book: Iron Ores