It is known that the very low frequency (VLF) signals propagating at long distances over a terrestrial waveguide will experience a diurnal interference across the sunrise and sunset transitions. Early studies indicated that cascaded terrestrial waveguides can be applied to investigate the cycle-clip behaviors of amplitude and phase for VLF waves, with an abrupt effective height change by 20 km to represent the night and day transitions. Based on the knowledge, this chapter starts with some basic concepts on VLF wave propagation in the presence of an anisotropic terrestrial waveguide. Then, by performing the method of field matching at the discontinuous junctions, the coefficients of transmitted and scattered vectors are resulted from two derived matrix equations. Finally, the synthetic fields are calculated to simulate the VLF waves, which are subjected to an oblique geomagnetic field during long-distance propagation. The purpose of the present chapter is to illustrate the disturbing nature during sunrise and sunset for the VLF waves with periodic variations in amplitudes interfered by multimodes over long propagation paths.
Part of the book: Electromagnetic Propagation and Waveguides in Photonics and Microwave Engineering